Ghībah (Backbiting)

From the many creations of Allāh Taʿālā, one is perfect and does not err and another is imperfect and prone to error and sin. Angels are the perfect creation of Allāh. They obey Allāh without fail and never disobey Him. They carry out only those things which they have been ordered to do. Human beings are the imperfect creation of Allāh: they err, falter and sin.

Rasūlullāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wasallam) has said in a Ḥadīth:

“Every son of Ādam is a sinner, and the best of sinners are those who sincerely repent

We thus understand that it is human nature to sin. This does not mean, however, that one should choose to lead a sinful life with the intention of repenting later. One should not become complacent or comfortable with sins. One of the prerequisites of tawbah (repentance) being accepted in the court of Allāh is to have a firm resolve to not repeat the sin. Moreover, one will only repent for his sins when he acknowledges the sin he is committing and recognises the abhorrence of it.

Out of the many sins people commit, the sin of engaging in ghībah (backbiting) is very common. It is extremely unfortunate that Muslims engage in this sin for hours on end without even a passing thought that so much time has been spent in earning the wrath and displeasure of Allāh Taʿālā.

The scholars define ghībah as: “To relate or reveal another person’s faults or evil habits to a third person verbally or in writing.” Attributing a fault to someone that he does not have is something worse than ghībah, i.e. buhtān (slander).

Consider the following Ḥadīth:

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ: أَتَدْرُونَ مَا الْغِيبَةُ ‏؟‏‏ قَالُوا: اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَعْلَمُ ‏.‏ قَالَ: ذِكْرُكَ أَخَاكَ بِمَا يَكْرَهُ ‏‏‏.‏ قِيلَ أَفَرَأَيْتَ إِنْ كَانَ فِي أَخِي مَا أَقُولُ، قَالَ: إِنْ كَانَ فِيهِ مَا تَقُولُ فَقَدِ اغْتَبْتَهُ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ فِيهِ فَقَدْ بَهَتَّهُ.

Abū Hurayrah reported Allāh’s Messenger (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wasallam) as saying: “Do you know what backbiting is?” They (the Ṣaḥābah) said: “Allāh and His Messenger know best.” Thereupon he (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wasallam) said: “Backbiting means your talking about your brother in a manner which he does not like.” It was said to him: “What if I actually find (that fault) in my brother which I made mention of?” He said: “If (that fault) is actually found (in him) what you assert, you in fact backbited him, and if that is not in him it is a slander.” (Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim)

Allāh Taʿālā states in the Qurʾān:

وَلا يَغْتَبْ بَعْضُكُمْ بَعْضًا أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَنْ يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتًا فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَحِيمٌ

“And do not backbite one another. Would any of you like to eat his dead brother’s flesh? You would, most surely, abhor it. So fear Allāh. Indeed, Allāh is all-relenting, mercy-giving.” (al-Ḥujurāt: 12)

We understand from the above verse that backbiting a fellow Muslim is akin to eating one’s brother’s flesh. Which sound minded person would like to do that?

Furthermore, the punishment of habitually backbiting is extremely severe. Rasūlullāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wasallam) said:

ما عُرج بي مررت بقوم لهم أظفار من نُحاس يخمشون وجوههم وصدورهم، فقلت‏:‏ من هؤلاء يا جبريل‏؟‏ قال‏:‏ هؤلاء الذين يأكلون لحوم الناس، ويقعون في أعراضهم

During miʿrāj (the Night of Ascension), I saw a group of people who were scratching their chests and faces with their nails of copper. I asked: “Who are these people, O Jibrīl?” Jibril replied: “These are the people who ate the flesh of others (by backbiting) and trampled people’s honour.” (Abū Dāwūd)

How to save oneself from engaging in backbiting

1. Don’t talk about other people without a reason. At times, one starts discussing others in a positive manner and then slowly drifts off into talking negatively about them, resulting in backbiting.

2. Learn to control the tongue. Letting the tongue loose is one of the main reasons one engages in backbiting. Train the tongue to remain silent at all times. Remaining silent was a quality of our pious predecessors.

3. If one is sitting in a gathering wherein backbiting is taking place, they should try to change the topic. If this is not possible, they should stand up and simply walk away.

4. Willpower is extremely important in refraining from any sin, not just backbiting. Hence, one should exercise their willpower towards restraining them-self from sin.

5. One should ponder over one’s own faults, defects and sins. This will make one realise that they have no right to talk negatively of others, since they are far worse than those they are backbiting.

6. Make tawbah and ask Allāh for His assistance and guidance. If one has backbited an individual, and it has reached them, it is necessary to ask them for forgiveness, along with tawbah. If it has not reached them, it will be sufficient to express remorse and make tawbah; it will not be necessary to ask forgiveness from the individual.

May Allāh Taʿālā protect us from engaging in this sin of ghībah and may Allāh protect us from all sins, whether minor or major, and enable us to make immediate tawbah if we happen to fall into sin. Āmīn.

Bilal al-Mahmudi

24 Muḥarram 1443 / 02 September 2021


Queries Related to Tashahhud and Madhhabs


Country: United Kingdom

I was born a muslim but I did not start to practice until 5 months ago when I started praying and following islamic rules alhamdulilah.  I found a video on how to pray and was following that, it taught me how to pray. As I was learning more about my religion I found that I according to sunnah I should look at finger during tashahud and keep my finger pointed to qibla the whole time etc. whereas how I learned it was I only raised the finger during Shahadah and they didn’t say to look at it. So its a bit confusing for me. I just wanted to know, in this situation, is it ok to follow what I learned initially or is it ‘fardh’ to have to follow the sunnah way of looking at finger the whole time and keeping it up. This issue is causing me a lot of stress as there is so many opinions and I don’t know what to do. Im afraid if I don’t solve this issue it will cause me to lose my faith.

(Question published as received)


In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the most Merciful.

It would be useful to make the following preliminary points before directly answering your query:

Ṣalāh (prayer) went through various changes throughout the life of the Messenger ﷺ. For instance, in the early days of Islam, it was permissible to speak in prayer. It was also permissible to move about while praying. The hands were raised at nearly every posture, including when coming up from the first prostration (sajdah). Similarly with fasting, a person had to begin his fast from the time he fell asleep, even if that happened to be just after sunset. One can find many examples of changes that took place in the various rituals of Islamic worship over the twenty-three years of prophethood.

Therefore, one source of why some narrations on prayer seem to apparently conflict with one another, is the gradual changes which occurred with prayer and this occurred during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ. The presence of these apparently conflicting narrations is thus one of the reasons why there are scholarly differences of opinion today on prayer and other aspects of worship. It was the work of the mujtahid Imams to holistically analyse all of these apparent contradictions and contextualise them in order to determine the truth of the matter.

This led to the formation of the four madhāhib (legal schools) – Ḥanafī, Mālikī, Shāfi’i and Ḥanbalī. Each madhab is an interpretation of the same sources of Sharīʿah (the Qurʾān and Ḥadīth) understood according to the methodology and systematic approach of their Imāms, all of whom possessed the ability to infer rulings directly from the Qurʾān and the Aḥādīth of Messenger of Allāh ﷺ. These four schools have been accepted and adhered to by the Muslim ummah and its scholars, century after century. In fact, after the codification of these four legal schools, almost every Muslim scholar from Islamic history has adhered to and taught according to one of these four madhhabs, and many voluminous biographical dictionaries have been compiled for the scholars of each school.

All four legal schools are valid in their interpretations, and following any one of them is permissible. However, a non-professional who lacks the ability to compare between the arguments of each school cannot pick and mix between different views to satisfy his personal desires. He most certainly would not understand the reasons for their differing based on their varying methodologies. Each madhab is the most authentic according to its own methodology and principles, thus mixing between them would mean butchering each of their distinctive approaches towards the interpretation of the sources of Shariʿah. Thus, the later jurists and scholars deemed it necessary for the common people to adopt a particular school in its totality. If one favours the madhhab of Imām Abū Ḥanīfah (raḥimahullāh) then one should adopt it in all matters. However, if one favours another madhhab, then they should adopt that one in full. One should not mix between the four schools.

The benefit of the validity of all four madhhabs is that a person can elect to follow any one of them based on a number of factors. However, once a person has adopted a particular madhhab, then he should not follow any other madhhab in any matter, whether for convenience or preference, as this would entail attempting to bend the Shariʿah to satisfy ones desires. Thus, the policy of “allegiance to a particular school” was a preventive measure adopted by the jurists to preclude anarchy in the matter of the Sharīʿah.

From the above points it is understood that in order to follow the Sharīʿah it is necessary for a person to adopt one of the four madhāhib. It is advisable that you adopt the madhhab which is dominant in your locality as this will make it easier for you to refer your questions to the scholars of that madhhab. Once you have adopted a madhhab you should refer to the pious, righteous and knowledgeable scholars of that madhhab for guidance in matters of jurisprudence.

The matter regarding which you have enquired is one such matter in which there is a difference of opinion amongst the different schools of thought. As per the Ḥanafī school of thought, after reciting ‘ashhadu’ – when saying ‘allā ilāha’ – a circle is formed with the thumb and middle finger of the right hand and the index finger is raised. The remaining two fingers will be closed (i.e. tucked in to the palm). When saying ‘illallāhu’ the index finger will be lowered slightly (not completely). The circle formed by the thumb and index finger will remain until the end. The eyes should be fixed towards the lap area when in the seated position. [1]

You have mentioned in your question that this is what you initially learnt. It is permissible for you to practice upon this and it is not necessary for you to adopt the opinion of keeping the finger up the whole time and looking at it.

In order to remove any doubts, we advise that you read up on the reason as to why there are different schools of thought and their importance, along with the requirement of following and adhering to one specific madhhab. The book ‘The Differences of the Imāms’ by Shaykh al-Ḥadith Mawlāna Muḥammad Zakariyyā Kandehlawi will be beneficial in this regard. You may also refer to the article: “The Obligation of Adhering to a Single Madhhab in all its Rulings” by Mufti Zameelur Rahman.

And Allah knows best

Mufti Abdullah Mulla

19 Ṣafar 1443 / 27 September 2021

[1] Ḥāshiyah al-Ṭaḥṭāwī ʿalā Marāqī l-Falāḥ


Pornography and Masturbation

Pornography Addiction — Effects and Remedies


In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

In this era of high-tech progression, accessing data and retrieving information has become far easier than before. Numerous inventions have taken place in the last few decades which have served positively for the comfort of people. Islām permits the utilisation of such inventions within the confines of Sharī‘ah, and prohibits the usage of that which is detrimental to ones’ physicality and spirituality.

Just as technological advancements hold many advantages, similarly, they have many disadvantages and harms. One such harm is, sexual exploitation in its various forms. Many avenues have opened up which allow one to access the filth of pornography which in reality is ‘fake’ and ‘illusionary’. Porn is aimed to spring instant stimulation to ones’ libido leading one towards satisfying himself, i.e. masturbating which in return can cause damage to ones’ health and spirituality. The more pornography one views, the more severe the damage caused to ones’ brain. [1]

Those who have a habit of viewing pornography, generally do so at night. They spend the day working and the night watching filth. They are overcome with restlessness and are deprived of sleep. Sleep deprivation is a one-way ticket to mental instability. If reading pornographic magazines, watching filthy movies, being involved in some illicit relationship and indulging in other sins does not result in any remorse or sorrow, (and instead we are expressing happiness over it) then where is our Īmān? [2]

As for masturbation, it also causes many harms. Fuqahā’ (Jurists) have classified masturbation as impermissible and a detested act in Sharī‘ah. [3]

Few excerpts of texts from the books of Fiqh on the prohibition of Masturbation

Ibn ʿĀbidīn al-Ḥanafī: “Self-pleasuring is not permissible due to the verse of the Qur’ān in Sūrah al-Mu’minūn – “And those who guard their private parts….” One may derive pleasure through one’s wife…” (Radd al-Muḥtār. See endnote 3)

Ṣalāḥ Abu l‑Ḥāj al-Ḥanafī: “Know well, it is prohibited for one to masturbate. However, if one is in a situation wherein he is about to fornicate, then only would it be permissible for him to masturbate to avert the desire of fornication.” (Fatāwā Ṣalāḥ Abu l‑Ḥāj. See endnote 3)

Al-Imām al-Shāfi’ī: “Verse 5 in Sūrah al-Mu’minūn establishes that to derive pleasure from anything/anyone besides ones’ wife is prohibited.” (Al-Umm. See endnote 3)

Abū Bakr ibn Muḥammad al-Husaynī al-Shāfi’ī: “The one who seeks pleasure with his hand will be punished because doing so is the same as committing fornication and adultery. It also discontinues procreation, hence, it is prohibited.” [4]

Yaḥyā ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī al-Shāfi’ī: “Masturbation is Ḥarām (prohibited) and it is punishable.” [5]

To ejaculate without sexual intercourse (through halal means) is Ḥarām just as masturbation (to ejaculate by using ones’ hand) is Ḥarām.” [6]

Abd al-Ḥayy al-Lakhnawī al-Ḥanafī: “Masturbation is prohibited and it is a filthy act. It invalidates the fast of the one who observes fasting.” [7]

Ibn Dhuwayyān al-Ḥanbalī: “Masturbation is impermissible for men and women because of the verse of the Qur’ān in Sūrah al-Mu’minūn…” [8]

Abu l- ‘Abbās Aḥmad ibn Aḥmad Zarrūq al-Mālikī: “The Madhhab of Imām al-Shāfi’ī and Imām Mālik is that masturbation is not permissible….” [9]

After reading the statements of the Fuqahā’, one can easily conclude that the act of masturbation is considered to be unlawful in Sharī‘ah. However, there may be instances when one is in a situation to choose between imminent zinā or masturbation. In such cases, the jurists have stated that if one opts for masturbation then it is hoped, Allāh Ta‘ālā may not punish him. [10]

Some practical ways to refrain from pornography and masturbation

1. Firstly, one should seek assistance from Allāh Ta‘ālā. Willpower without Allah’s power and His support is of no use. One should make a habit of sitting in a secluded area daily and supplicating to Allāh.

2. Murāqabah – to reflect over ones’ actions, sins and deeds while pondering how this sin of masturbation could eventually lead to a miserable life full of loneliness and displeasure of Allāh Ta‘ālā. One should also contemplate over death and think, what would happen if I die whilst indulging in viewing pornography and masturbation.

3. Consult a senior scholar who is involved in making Iṣlāh (spiritual reformation) and inform him of one’s evil habits. The Mashāyikh prescribe doses of ‘spiritual medicine’ from the Qur’ān and recommend various Adhkār which remove the dirt from the heart and instils the love of Allāh, his messenger (Ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and an earnest desire to follow the dīn properly.

4. Minimise usage of the internet. It is extremely important that one cuts down on using the internet and unnecessary browsing when unoccupied. One should fill his day with fruitful activities that occupy his time in a positive way. Remember, “An idle mind is a devils’ workshop”.

5. It is also possible to change the internet settings to prevent access to such websites. One should also download software/apps such as Net nanny or K9 internet watch, which are specifically designed for controlling web content for safe browsing.

6. At the same time, download plugins for one’s browser which removes adverts as well as disables pictures. Once one has realized that these elements are catalyst for one’s sexual problem, it only makes sense that one quarantines himself. Such measures are akin to any other medical restriction to safeguard one’s Īmān.

7. Read Islāmic literature and sit with the scholars. Many Masājid hold weekly programmes for the general people.

8. Take assistance from the words of Allāh, i.e. Qur’ān. Recitation of Qur’ān as a daily practice, or even listening to it on a regular basis curbs the heightened desires of the heart.

9. Regulate one’s food. Many foods which have heat in them heighten sexual libido. Reduce such foods like dates, red meat, almonds, seafood and many citrus fruits.

10. Fast regularly. Fasting assists in controlling one’s sexual desire as prescribed by our Beloved Messenger (Ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

Many of these tips have proven to be effective in occupying one’s mind and removing the urge to indulge in this vice. Lastly, remember, “Success comes in cans, not in cannot’s.”

May Allāh ‘azza wa jal protect us from all vices which earn his displeasure and wrath and may Allāh protect us from the snares of Shayṭān, āmīn.

(Mufti) Bilal al-Mahmudi

Checked by,
Mufti Faisal al-Mahmudi


[1] For more information on pornography, visit —

[2] Abstract from Shaykh Yūnus Patel (Raḥimahullāh)’s article, titled – “pornography”


[3] حاشية الطحطاوي على مراقي الفلاح

وله ذلك” أي العبث بذكره قوله: “إن كان أعزب” يقال فيه عزب وظاهر التقييد به عدم حله لمتزوج ولو في مدة منعه عن حليلته بحيض أو سفر قوله: “وبه ينجو رأسا برأس” عبارة البحر عن المحيط ولو أن رجلا عزبا به فرط شهوة له أن يستمني بعلاج لتسكينها ولا يكون مأجورا البتة ينجو رأسا برأس هكذا روي عن أبي حنيفة اهـ والمراد بقوله رأسا برأس أنه لا أجر له ولا وزر عليه قوله: “يخشى منها” أي الوقوع في لواط أو زنا فيكون هذا من إرتكاب أخف الضررين

فتاوى يكثر السؤال عنها للشيخ صلاح ابو الحاج ص: ٤٤

((اعلم أن استمناء الشخص بيده حرام خشي الزنا أم لا لكن إن لم يندفع عنه الزنا إلا به قدمه عليه ارتكاباً لأخف المفسدتين))، وكذا في مواهب الجليل 3: 167؛ لقوله تعالى: {والذي هم لفروجهم حافظون}، وقال ابن العربي في أحكام القرآن3: 316: وعامة العلماء على تحريمه, وهو الحق الذي لا ينبغي أن يدان الله إلا به … ولو قام الدليل على جوازها لكان ذو المروءة يعرض عنها لدناءتها

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين رد المحتار

ويجوز أن يستمني بيد زوجته وخادمته اهـ وسيذكر الشارح في الحدود عن الجوهرة أنه يكره ولعل المراد به كراهة التنزيه فلا ينافي قول المعراج يجوز تأمل وفي السراج إن أراد بذلك تسكين الشهوة المفرطة الشاغلة للقلب وكان عزبا لا زوجة له ولا أمة أو كان إلا أنه لا يقدر على الوصول إليها لعذر قال أبو الليث أرجو أن لا وبال عليه وأما إذا فعله لاستجلاب الشهوة فهو آثم اهـ

بقي هنا شيء وهو أن علة الإثم هل هي كون ذلك استمتاعا بالجزء كما يفيده الحديث وتقييدهم كونه بالكف ويلحق به ما لو أدخل ذكره بين فخذيه مثلا حتى أمنى، أم هي سفح الماء وتهييج الشهوة في غير محلها بغير عذر كما يفيده قوله وأما إذا فعله لاستجلاب الشهوة إلخ؟ لم أر من صرح بشيء من ذلك والظاهر الأخير؛ لأن فعله بيد زوجته ونحوها فيه سفح الماء لكن بالاستمتاع بجزء مباح كما لو أنزل بتفخيذ أو تبطين بخلاف ما إذا كان بكفه ونحوه وعلى هذا فلو أدخل ذكره في حائط أو نحوه حتى أمنى أو استمنى بكفه بحائل يمنع الحرارة يأثم أيضا ويدل أيضا على ما قلنا ما في الزيلعي حيث استدل على عدم حله بالكف بقوله تعالى {والذين هم لفروجهم حافظون} (المؤمنون: 5) الآية وقال فلم يبح الاستمتاع إلا بهما أي بالزوجة والأمة اهـ فأفاد عدم حل الاستمتاع أي قضاء الشهوة بغيرهما هذا ما ظهر لي والله سبحانه أعلم

الأم للشافعي ٥ / ١٠١-١٠٢

قال الله عز وجل {والذين هم لفروجهم حافظون — إلا على أزواجهم} (المؤمنون: ٥ — ٦) قرأ إلى {العادون} (المؤمنون: ٧) (قال الشافعي) : فكان بينا في ذكر حفظهم لفروجهم إلا على أزواجهم أو ما ملكت أيمانهم تحريم ما سوى الأزواج وما ملكت الأيمان وبين أن الأزواج وملك اليمين من الآدميات دون البهائم ثم أكدها فقال عز وجل {فمن ابتغى وراء ذلك فأولئك هم العادون} (المؤمنون: ٧) فلا يحل العمل بالذكر إلا في الزوجة أو في ملك اليمين ولا يحل الاستمناء والله تعالى أعلم وقال في قول الله تعالى {وليستعفف الذين لا يجدون نكاحا حتى يغنيهم الله من فضله} (النور: ٣٣) معناها والله أعلم ليصبروا حتى يغنيهم الله تعالى وهو كقوله في مال اليتيم {ومن كان غنيا فليستعفف} (النساء: ٦) ليكف عن أكله بسلف أو غيره قال وكان في قول الله عز وجل {والذين هم لفروجهم حافظون — إلا على أزواجهم أو ما ملكت أيمانهم} (المؤمنون: ٥ — ٦) بيان أن المخاطبين بها الرجال لا النساء فدل على أنه لا يحل للمرأة أن تكون متسرية بما ملكت يمينها لأنها متسراة أو منكوحة لا ناكحة إلا بمعنى أنها منكوحة ودلالة على تحريم إتيان البهائم لأن المخاطبة بإحلال الفرج في الآدميات المفروض عليهن العدة ولهن الميراث منهم وغير ذلك من فرائض الزوجين

[4] كفاية الاخيار في حل غاية الإختصار ص ٥٣٠، كتاب الحدود

فاذا استمني شخص بيده عزر لانها مباشرة محرمة بغير ايلاج ، ويفضي الي قطع النسل فحرم كمباشرة الاجنبية فيما دون الفرج وقد جاء ملعون من نكح يده

[5] روضة الطالبين ١٠ -٩١

والاستمناء حرام وفيه التعزير ، ولو امكن امرأته او جاريته من العبث بذكره فانزل قال القاضي حسين في اول

فتاويه : يكره لانه في معني الانزال

[6] تحفة المحتاج ص ٣ – ٤٠٩

يشري الكريم بشرح مسائل والتعليم ص ٥٤٨

الاستمناء وهو استخراج المني بغير جماع حراما كان كاخراجه بيده

[7] نفع المفتي والسائل بجمع متفرقات المسائل ص ٣٥٢

الاستمناءُ باليدِ أمرٌ شنيعٌ حرام، مفسدٌ للصَّوم، لا يَحِلُّ لأحدٍ أن يفعلَ إن أرادَ الاستلذاذ، نعم ؛ إن غَلَبَتِ الشَّهوة ، وأرادَ تسكينَها، فالمرجوُّ أن لا يُعاقب

في ((فتحِ القدير)): ولا يحلُّ الاستمناءُ بالكفّ، ذَكَرَهُ المشايخ، وفيه أنه عليه الصَّلاةُ والسَّلام، قال: (نَاكِحُ اليَدِ مَلْعُون)، فإن غَلَبَتْ الشهوةُ ففعلَ

أرجو أن لا يُعاقَب. انتهىو هكذا في ((شرعةِ الإسلام))، وفي ((حاشية البِرْجَنْدِيِّ على مختصر الوقاية)): وهل يحلُّ أن يفعلَ ذلك إذا لم يكن صائماً؟

إن أرادَ الشَّهوةَ لا، وإن أرادَ به تسكينَ الشَّهوةِ لا بأسَ به. كذا في ((الكافي)). انتهى

وهكذا في ((العناية))، و((جامع الرُّموز))، و((الدُّرِّ المختار))، و((الكفاية))

 قال القاري في ((المصنوع في معرفة الحديث الموضوع)) (ص ١٩٩)، والعجلوني في ((كشف الخفاء)) (٢ – ٤٣١)، قال الرُّهاوي: لا أصل له.

وقد ذكر الشيخ المحقِّق عبد الفتاح أبو غدة رحمه الله تعليقاً لطيفاً على هذا الحديث في تحقيق ((المصنوع)) (ص ١٩٩ – ٢٠١)، ومما قاله: إن ابن الهمام من العلماء المحقِّقين المشهود له بالإمامة بل ببلوغ رتبة الاجتهاد المطلق، ولكنه وقع منه الاستشهاد بهذا الحديث على المتابعة لمن استشهدَ به من الفقهاء والعلماء الذين ينظر في كتبهم، فأورده دون أن يبحث عنه، وكثيراً ما يقع للعالم هذا، إذ لا ينشَطُ ويتوَّجهُ للكشف والتمحيص لما يستشهد به، فيذكره أو ينفيه على الاسترسال والمتابعة

[8] منار السبيل في شرح الدليل ٢ – ٣٨٣

ويحرم” الاستمناء باليد على الرجال والنساء لقوله تعالى: {وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِفُرُوجِهِمْ حَافِظُونَ} 1 ولحديث رواه الحسن بن عرفة في جزئه، ولأنه مباشرة تفضي إلى قطع النسل، ويعزر فاعله. قال في الكافي: ولا حد فيه، لأنه لا إيلاج فيه، فإن خشي الزنى أبيح له، لأنه يروى عن جماعة من الصحابة. انتهى. يعني: إن لم يقدر على نكاح. قال مجاهد: كانوا يأمرون فتيانهم يستغنوا به

[9] شرح زروق على متن الرسالة ٢ – ٨٨٤

ذكر القاضي أبو بكر بن العربي في أحكامه من سورة {قد أفلح} (المؤمنون: ١) في قوله تعالى: {والذين هم لفروجهم حافظون إلا على أزواجهم} (المؤمنون: ٥ – ٦)

أن مذهب مالك والشافعي تحريم الاستمناء قال وأحمد على جلالة قدره يقول بإباحته وأنه كالفصادة ثم قال: وليس هذا من الخلاف الذي يجوز العمل به وليت شعري لو كان فيه نص صريح بالجواز كان ذو همة يرضاه لنفسه قلت والذي في كتاب الحنابلة يعزر فاعله إلا أن يكون له عذر واضح والله أعلم

[10] See ibārāt (texts) quoted above.

Various scenarios where wuḍūʾ is and is not required


Country: United Kingdom

Salaam do you need to have wadu when:

1. Reciting quran on phone

2. Reciting from memory

3. Reciting droid or dua

Thank you

(Question published as received)


In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the most Merciful.

1. Wuḍūʾ is not required unless one is touching the text of the Qurʾān on the screen. However, adab (good etiquette) entails one should be in the state of wuḍūʾ when reciting the Qurʾān.

2. Wuḍūʾ is not required in this case, however, it is better to be in the state of wuḍūʾ.

3.Wudūʾ is not required for reciting durūd and making duʿāʾ.

And Allah knows best

(Mufti) Bilal al-Mahmudi

19 Ṣafar 1443 / 27 September 2021

Concurred by: Mufti Zameelur Rahman


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